The Uffington white horse Ordnance Survey grid reference: SU The Uffington white horse, one of only four that face to the right, is high on an escarpment of the Berkshire Downs below Whitehorse Hill, a mile and a half south of the village of Uffington, and it looks out over the Vale of the White Horse. Though on the Berkshire Downs, it has been in Oxfordshire since county boundary alterations in the s. It is cut, not on the steepest slope of the hill, but on the much shallower slope near the top, and can only really be viewed well from afar or from above. This is by far the oldest of all the white horses, and is of an entirely different design to the others. Unlike the solid and more or less naturalistic figures of the other horses, the Uffington white horse is formed from stylized curving lines some ten feet or less wide, and its length of around feet makes it over twice as long as the longest of the Wiltshire horses. Whether it is indeed intended to represent a horse, or some other creature instead, has been debated, but it has certainly been called a horse since at least medieval times. A cartulary of the Abbey of Abingdon from between and refers to “the place commonly known as the White Horse Hill” “locum qui vulgo mons albi equi nuncupatur”. Until the Uffington white horse was thought to date from the Iron Age. However, in the nineteen-nineties, a new dating technique was developed.
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Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Weitere Bedeutungen sind unter Himalaya (Begriffsklärung) aufgeführt.
The first 40 years of research produced a plethora of interesting and often amusing gradualist theory and catastrophic theories for the geomorphology of the bays, with the catastrophic solutions losing favor due to difficulties in many areas. Among the challenges for the previously-considered catastrophic hypothesis include: Here, the author posits that the dates identified thus far were not executed using a robust dating methodology specifically addressing the structural bay rim sand, and that those results may represent only a minimum age for re-worked overlying surficial sands and adjacent sand dunes associated with the bays.
This paper is submitted to address this shortcoming by proposing that an extensive OSL dating regimen be executed along a transect of the Goldsboro Ridge in North Carolina, with a goal of identifying the depositional age of the entire structure and its embedded Carolina bays. Justification for this approach is provided herein, and the reader is invited to consider participating in the experiment at any level they deem appropriate to their interests and skills.
Introduction My name is Michael Davias. My professional background is in the computer sciences, and I have made a relatively successful career for myself providing technical pre and post-sales support at several hardware companies. In these roles, I help assure the equipment is sold into the correct environments, and diligently insure that it remains sold by providing the customer with a satisfactory user experience.
I pride myself in my problem solving skills, putting the optimal solution together with the guidance of my customers and my peers. Normal science – in the parlance of Thomas Kuhn – can also be viewed as puzzle solving. In both of these situations, progress towards a solution is encouraged by the knowledge that a solution is likely at hand with available tools applied to learned paradigms.
The lantern frame shows brown patina and some pitting but is overall straight and complete. The bell on this lantern is not original to the lantern however it appears to match nicely and may have been attached for quite some time. The under side of the lid shows pitting and a reattachment of the thumb latch wire but no pin holes to the naked eye. The globe is a clear extended base globe with a wheel cutting mark of McL.
May 16, · The cheapest and easiest way to disinfect water? Sunlight. Just leave a clear glass or plastic bottle out in the sun for six hours. SODIS, or solar water disinfection, is .
Optically-Stimulated Luminescence is a late Quaternary dating technique used to date the last time quartz sediment was exposed to light. As sediment is transported by wind, water, or ice, it is exposed to sunlight and zeroed of any previous luminescence signal. Once this sediment is deposited and subsequently buried, it is removed from light and is exposed to low levels of natural radiation in the surrounding sediment.
Through geologic time, quartz minerals accumulate a luminescence signal as ionizing radiation excites electrons within parent nuclei in the crystal lattice. A certain percent of the freed electrons become trapped in defects or holes in the crystal lattice of the quartz sand grain referred to as luminescent centers and accumulate over time Aitken, In our laboratory, these sediments are exposed to an external stimulus blue-green light and the trapped electrons are released.
The released electrons emit a photon of light upon recombination at a similar site. In order to relate the luminescence given off by the sample to an age, we first need to obtain the dose equivalent to the burial dose. Following the single-aliquot regenerative SAR method of Murray and Wintle , the dose equivalent De is calculated by first measuring the natural luminescence of a sample. Then, the bleached sample is given known laboratory doses of radiation, referred to as regenerative doses.
Defects and transport in perovskites with protons, oxygen vacancies and electron holes The charge transport characterization of thin diamonds layer by impedance method Oral presentations29 T. Optical properties of silicon nanocrystals synthesized by reactive pulsed laser deposition Concentration self-quenching of luminescence in LaF 3: Diffusion of 5p-holes in BaF 2 nanoparticles 3. Anomalous diffusion of small electron polarons in lithium niobate 4.
Welcome to the K12 section of the Radiocarbon WEBinfo site. The aim here is to provide clear, understandable information relating to radiocarbon dating for the benefit of K12 students, as well as lay people who are not requiring detailed information about the method of radiocarbon dating itself.
Vigeland Sculpture Park Share: The iconic Vigeland Sculpture Park – the largest such park in the world – is one of Norway’s most famous tourist attractions. Open year round, this unique sculpture park is Gustav Vigeland’s lifework and contains of his dynamic sculptures in bronze, granite and wrought iron. Vigeland was in charge of the design and layout of the park completed in , placing the majority of sculptures in five themed groups along a 2, ft long axis.
The oldest is the fountain group, depicting the cycle of human life, beyond which can be seen the 55 ft high Monolith comprising intertwined human bodies. If you’re interested in learning more about Vigeland the artist, visit the Vigeland Museum near Oslo’s Municipal Museum. The Geological Museum includes minerals, precious metals and meteorites, plus an impressive collection of dinosaur skeletons, while in the Zoological Museum you’ll find dioramas of Norwegian fauna.
Best of all, however, is the exquisite Botanical Garden. Founded in , the garden features 7, different plant species from Norway and other parts of the world, 1, of them located in the beautiful Rock Garden with its waterfalls. Sars gate 1, Oslo Official site: Containing almost 28, works of art in addition to personal effects and tools – even his private library – the museum also puts on special exhibits devoted to particular aspects of Munch’s work through film screenings, concerts, guided tours and lectures.
Home to the Norwegian National Opera and Ballet as well as the National Opera Theatre, the seat Oslo Opera House seems to almost want to slip into the city’s harbor, an effect exaggerated by its angled exterior surfaces. Clad in Italian marble and white granite, the Opera House is the largest cultural building constructed in Norway since Trondheim’s Nidaros Cathedral in the 14th Century.
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Meanwhile, in Australia, the Bradshaw Paintings c. Northern and Western Europe c. Mesolithic Art , for details. Mesolithic was a short intervening period between the hunter-gatherer culture of the Paleolithic Old Stone Age and the farming culture of the Neolithic New Stone Age , during which the ice retreated to the poles and melted.
The Mammoth Site in Hot Springs, South Dakota is the world’s largest mammoth research facility where you can tour an active paleontological dig site and view .
How do we measure the radiation dose rate? OSL is used on glacial landforms that contain sand, such as sandur or sediments in glacial streams. The OSL signal is reset by exposure to sunlight, so the signal is reset to zero while the sand is being transported such as in a glacial meltwater stream. Once the sand grain has been buried and it is no longer exposed to sunlight, the OSL signal starts to accumulate.
OSL works because all sediments have some natural radioactivity, caused by the presence of uranium, thorium and potassium isotopes in heavy minerals such as zircons. We analyse the quartz or feldspar minerals in sand deposits. When these quartz or feldspar minerals are exposed to the ionising radiation emitted by the radioactive isotopes in zircons, electrons within the crystals migrate and become trapped in their crystal structure. The number of trapped electrons depends on the total amount of radiation that the mineral has been exposed to.
If we assume that the radiation dose rate of the sediment has remained constant over time, then if we measure that dose rate, we can calculate the sample age. How do we measure the OSL signal?
Optically stimulated luminescence osl optically
These slowly decay over time and the ionizing radiation they produce is absorbed by mineral grains in the sediments such as quartz and potassium feldspar. The radiation causes charge to remain within the grains in structurally unstable “electron traps”. The trapped charge accumulates over time at a rate determined by the amount of background radiation at the location where the sample was buried. Stimulating these mineral grains using either light blue or green for OSL; infrared for IRSL or heat for TL causes a luminescence signal to be emitted as the stored unstable electron energy is released, the intensity of which varies depending on the amount of radiation absorbed during burial and specific properties of the mineral.
The Uffington white horse. Ordnance Survey grid reference: SU The Uffington white horse, one of only four that face to the right, is high on an escarpment of the Berkshire Downs below Whitehorse Hill, a mile and a half south of the village of Uffington, and it looks out over the Vale of the White Horse.
Some are necessary for certain measurements but need not belong to the TL lab, and some are helpful or labor-saving but not truly necessary for determining TL ages. The following list of the major apparatus needed gives a short explanation of why required, and whether it is necessary. In some cases, where equipment is available elsewhere, such as radiation sources, it may be possible to begin dating with only the TL reader, software, computer, and atmosphere control vacuum pump and purge gas supply.
However, this can limit the amount of work possible and makes one dependent on others’ schedules. The choice of base system will depend largely on whether you will be doing any substantial amount of TL measurement, where an evacuable system is, depending on sample materials, either optional or necessary. While the most versatile of our systems, the , can accomplish both TL and OSL measurements very well, the new high capacity OSL system is the better choice where the primary technique is OSL, and especially where TL capability already exists in the lab.
The high capacity TL system is designed for additive dose geological measurement where the irradiations are external; now that single aliquot OSL techniques that require multiple irradiations are popular, this is not the best choice. It should also be mentioned that the single aliquot techniques are quite time consuming since there are so many lengthy irradiations. A platter load of 20 disks may take from a day to two weeks to finish, so that high capacity is really not an issue.
This is particularly important for archaeological dating, but in some cases is necessary for authenticity dating as well, when there is considerable anomalous fading. The preheat capability of the ramp cycle can be used to remove part of the fading, but generally not all. When a great number of samples will be measured as in geological dating , a higher capacity reader system is very desirable.
The Daybreak model has a sample capacity, but does not permit irradiations on the instrument. The IRIS4 quad detector permits recording glowcurves in four wavelength passbands simultaneously, and is useful for characterizing sample emission.
OSL Dating and Chronology in Pensacola, Florida’s Contact Period
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message In physics , optically stimulated luminescence OSL is a method for measuring doses from ionizing radiation. It is used in at least two applications:
Gravures du Sud-oranais. Gravures rupestres du Sud-oranais (présentation générale avec un résumé des premières interprétations et de la classification proposée par Henri Lhote); Gravures rupestres de la région de Figuig; Gravures rupestres de la région d’Ain Sefra.
Medical Dosimetry Other Applications and Concepts, including retrospective and accident dosimetry, environmental monitoring and UV dosimetry Throughout the book, the underlying theory is discussed on an as-needed basis for a complete understanding of the phenomena, but with an emphasis of the practical applications of the technique. The authors also give background information and relevant key references on each method, inviting the reader to explore deeper into the subject independently.
Postgraduates, researchers, and those involved with radiation dosimetry will find this book particularly useful. The material is both relevant and accessible for both specialists and those new to the field, therefore is fundamental to any academic interested in modern advances of the subject. About the Author Stephen W. He is also a Regents Professor in the department of physics.
He is widely known for his research in optically stimulated luminescence OSL and thermoluminescence TL with specific applications to radiation dosimetry. Major accomplishments in recent years include leading a research team that the developed optically stimulated luminescence as a means of personal radiation dosimetry. The patented technology was used commercially to develop a radiation dosimeter system currently used worldwide.